Не поленюсь еще раз привести их перечень с гиперссылками, хотя, понимаю, что вряд ли кто-то их хотя бы просмотрит:
‘Our biggest challenge in this new century is to take an idea that sounds abstract – sustainable development – and turn it into reality for all the world’s people’.
Mr Kofi Annan, the Secretary General of the
Education for Sustainable Development: Practice of Integration of sustainable development into engineering education system
Prof.William M. Zadorsky / Ukrainian State University of Chemical Engineering
Summary. It is proposed to use non-traditional approach for engineering education, when the SD Concept integrates with Systematic Approach to be used not only as the theoretic base, foundation and philosophy of engineering education but and as science for future experts activity strategy and tactics. The essence of our approach consists not only in that the future experts have seized the concept of sustainable development, but and in that this concept became base and system forming element of all basic disciplines and courses of lectures in system of continuous education.
Keywords. SD&Systematic Approach. Integration. Tools. Methods.
Introduction. One of the most outstanding events of ХХ century was UNO Conference, that was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and on this one Agenda on ХХ1 century is compounded program of actions for achievement of sustainable development was passed. As it is known the concept of sustainable development includes three aspects: ecological, economical and social. Only balanced simultaneous complex decision of all three tasks of sustainable development is economic growth at simultaneous meliorating of ecological conditions and decision of social problems allows to realize this progressive policy.
The World Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development recommended also to the United Nations General Assembly that “it consider adopting a Decade for Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) starting in 2005” (Para. 117d, Plan of Implementation). In December 2002, resolution 57/254 on the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development beginning 1 January 2005 was adopted by consensus. The resolution had been introduced by Japan and co-sponsored by 46 countries. Education as the foundation of sustainable development was reaffirmed at the Johannesburg Summit, as was the commitment embodied in Chapter 36 of Agenda 21 of the Rio Summit, 1992. Education is recognized as a tool for addressing important questions such as rural development, health care, community involvement, HIV/AIDS, the environment, and wider ethical/legal issues such as human values and human rights. The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development aims to promote education as a basis for a more sustainable human society and to integrate sustainable development into education systems at all levels. The Decade will also strengthen international cooperation towards the development and sharing of innovative education for sustainable development programs, practices and policies. Thus, the focus of DESD activities will be advocacy, communication and networking directed at facilitating all educators to include sustainable development concerns and goals in their own programs. The basic ESD purposes concern:
- Integration of sustainable development into education systems at all levels;
- Assistance to development of education as bases of a sustainable society;
- Strengthening of the international cooperation for development of an innovative policy, programs and practice by education in interests of sustainable development.
It is known, that Education for Sustainable Development has four major domains, reflecting diverse goals and audiences: promotion and improvement of basic education, reorienting existing education at all levels to address sustainable development, developing public understanding and awareness of sustainability, and training.
As key, the more important themes of ESD in support of the Decade they usually give biodiversity, fresh water management, environmental conservation and protection, rural transformation, health promotion, sustainable production and consumption, human rights, peace and international understanding, and the cross-cutting themes of poverty alleviation and gender equality. But as we believe it is necessary for engineering education to use quite another approach. The matter is that Concept of SD integrated with Systematic Approach has to be used as the theoretic base, foundation of all engineering education, its philosophy but in the same time and as science on future expert activity strategy and tactics. Then it will be useful to use Information and Communication Technology in the service of ESD even in very non- traditional learning situations.
Unfortunately substantial situation in Ukraine, that has folded for today, mismatched of economical development paces and ecological safety demands, dominance of recourse consuming branches, high specific weight of recourse- and power-intensive obsolescent technologies, raw attitude of export, absence of humanisticvalues among priorities of development, and also of work culture and the consumption result in an excavation of crisis condition in economics, change for the worse of environment conditions, that forms real threat to life and activity both present and future generations.
Today many questions concerning development and realization of the concept of sustainable development of Ukraine rest on unpreparation of population and technicians. May be because of absence of clearness and priorities of these nodal questions decision Ukraine obviously lags behind the world community in the decision of global and regional economical, ecological and social problems [2 - 29].
Approximately 10 years ago we have started to realize essentially new concept of preparation of the experts owning the concept of sustainable development. Essence of it is not to specially prepare for experts on sustainable development. In our opinion, it is essentially incorrect statement of a problem. The essence of our approach consists not only in that the future experts have seized the concept of sustainable development, but and in that this concept became base, an system forming element of all basic disciplines and courses of lectures in system of continuous education.
Generally, as we consider, the technicians training in the field of sustainable development is necessary to begin not at High School but much earlier from small years at preschool entities, and then at school, predominantly in junior classes. It is necessary to begin from bringing up in young generation of rational, economical consumption of energy, raw, any material values, and making and consuming them to care of environment, purity of class, auditorium, yard, street, city, country, to bring up feelings of decency, compulsion, respect for the colleague on study, work, business, to cultivate the care of the own authority and image. But it is task for our future. While we realized for our University students (only specialty “Chemical Engineering”) the next logical formed scheme of continuous education (Tab.1).
So, we have:
Second year of education.
We deliver the Special large course of lectures “The theory of technical systems”. There are in these course: Systematic approach. Decomposition of systems with hierarchical levels. Determining levels of system. Sustainable Development concept. Measure of sustainability on the different levels of system. Indexes of sustainability. Criteria of optimization. Concepts and methodologies, tools and methods base of influence on technical systems at various hierarchical levels. A choice of a method of influence. A principle of conformity amplitude - frequency characteristics of the chosen method of influence at limiting level to corresponding this level system characteristics (see Table 2.).
Two aspects of the systematic approach to cleaner production are addressed:
Vertical hierarchy. It implies that any subsystem of a system may be regarded either as a lower-level system in relation to the upper tier or as an upper-level system for the lower tier.
Match between a tier in a hierarchy and the methodology of characterization, assessment or influence used at this tier. This aspect does not seem to have been sufficiently covered previously and deserves a closer look. The tools used to analyze, study and influence an object should match the respective tier dimensions and frequency in the order of magnitude.
Then we have the continue of this course of lectures on the Fourth year of education. We deliver theSpecial course of lectures “Technical systems optimization” with the next questions:
Mathematic modeling and experiment planning. Artificial intellect and methods of technical creative work. Methodic of industrial experiment. Quantitative definition of intensity, efficiency, flexibility, environmental safety. Stating intensity of chemical technology and metallurgical equipment. Algorithm of optimization. Algorithm of systems sustainability improving is:
Ecologization of industrial equipment. Regime - technological and apparatus - constructive methods of high-tech ecologization. Complex approach. Methods of raising efficiency of industrial high-tech and their classification. Efficiency as a thermodynamic notion. Relation between the efficiency of processes and their environmental safety. Algorithm of raising efficiency. Examples of algorithm realization in optimizing particular industrial processes and apparatus. High-tech flexibility and methods of its quantitative calculation. Local and integral flexibility on the different levels of object's hierarchy. Concept: assurance of the required flexibility of systems. Algorithm of flexibility assurance. Methods of ensuring flexibility of technology and equipment. Adaptation of industrial high-tech and methods of its insurance. Internal and external flexibility and their relationship. Combined reaction- mass-exchange processes - examples of most flexible technologies. Block -modules approach and flexible equipment, based on it. Multiple phases' inversion and its role in flexible technology. Fundamentals of flexible control over flexible systems. Field of flexible systems application.
On the Fourth year of education (second semester) we deliver Special course of lectures “Chemical and Environmental Technical Machinery Optimization”. Then we train our students on: Ecologization of industrial equipment. Regime - technological and apparatus - constructive methods of high-tech ecologization. Complex approach. Methods of raising efficiency of industrial high-tech and their classification. Efficiency as a thermodynamic notion. Relation between the efficiency of processes and their environmental safety. Algorithm of raising efficiency. Examples of algorithm realization in optimizing particular industrial processes and apparatus. High-tech flexibility and methods of its quantitative calculation. Local and integral flexibility on the different levels of object's hierarchy. Concept: assurance of the required flexibility of systems. Algorithm of flexibility assurance. Methods of ensuring flexibility of technology and equipment. Adaptation of industrial high-tech and methods of its insurance. Internal and external flexibility and their relationship. Combined reaction- mass-exchange processes - examples of most flexible technologies. Block -modules approach and flexible equipment, based on it. Multiple phases' inversion and its role in flexible technology. Fundamentals of flexible control over flexible systems. Field of flexible systems application.
Criteria of environmental technical machinery optimization. Environmental safety of technological devices and methods of its quantitative calculation. Link between the optimum level of environmental safety with economic characteristics of installations. Methodology of industrial installations ecologization. . Systematic approach as the basis for modern approaches to ecologization. Strategic principles and tactic devices of ecologization. Principles of systematic ecologization (process with no wastes through selectivity, local disinfecting of wastes, recycling, utilization, resources preservation, complexity, multiple use of resources and energy, maximum selectivity of synthesis and separation, ecologization of consumption sphere). Regime-technological methods of ecologization (process maintenance with excessive less toxic reagent, minimizing the time of processing, re-circulation, closed character of substance and energy streams, combination of synthesis and separation). Apparatus-constructive methods of ecologization (adaptation, intensification, closed structure, polio-functional character). Examples of realization. Industry ecologization. Local disinfecting. Wastelessness through selectivity. Recycling. Industrial symbiosis. Utilization of waste. Resources preservation. Complexity. Selectivity of synthesis and decomposition. Cyclic processes. Re-circulation as a method of ensuring wastelessness. Improvement of Productions Purity, Pollution Prevention, Life Cycle Assessment.
Water and Waste Treatment Processes. Water demand. Water pollution. Classification of water pollution and methods of their removing. Water supply and water re-cycling at enterprises. Mechanical and physical-mechanical methods of water purification. Bio-chemical methods of water purification. Electrochemical methods of water purification. Ozonation of water. Solis waste treatment. Classification of solid wastes. Industrial and Domestic Wastes. Air Treatment Technology. Air. Sources of pollution. Self-cleaning of the atmosphere. Calculation of gases outbursts. Gases purification by adsorption and absorption. Physical methods of gases purification. Oxidizing and thermal decomposition. Apparatus for removing dust from gases. purification of gases. Types of absorbers, requirements for absorbents, ways of perfecting contact devices construction. Sewage. Industrial and domestic. Sewage treatment processes. Constructions and equipment for mechanical purification of sewage, blenders and their calculation. Equipment for chemical and physical-chemical treatment of sewage. Equipment for neutralization of sewage, peculiarities of neutralization process, filters-neutralizers, absorbers. Equipment for coagulation. Equipment for sewage purification bio-oxidizers, peculiarities of process, calculating methods of ozonning reactor. Flotation installments, ways of flotation, installment of pressure flotation, flotation silt-compressors, impeller flotation. Extraction installations. Apparatuses for adsorption and ion-exchange processing of sewage. Apparatus for membrane treatment of sewage. Installations of electrochemical purification of sewage. Electro-flotation plants, electro-coagulators, electrolysers, electro-dialysers; their construction, co-precipitation. Constructions and apparates for bio-chemical purification of sewage. Air-tanks. Bio-filters. Equipment for biochemical recycling of waste products in anaerobic conditions and peculiarities of process. Constructions for biochemical recycling of sewage waters in natural conditions, oxidizing ponds, aired ponds. Equipment for settling stabilization and dehydrating of active silt, equipment for recycling of sediments, gravitational silt-compressors, dryers. Electroairsol methods and equipment. Electrochemical methods and equipment. Acoustic equipment for intensifying mass exchange processes. Combined reaction-separation processes. Reactor of water ozonization. Besides as sample of approach realizing we discuss the Improving of nanocomposite materials production technique with treatment of gaseous/vaporous submicrometer particles-cleaned phases. The goal of the project is unification of technology and equipment for production of some of Innovative Products of nano-capillary porous materials with new impregnation technologies in module installations usage.
And, at last, during the Fifth year of education we deliver Special course of lectures “Engineering - technological business”. This course includes not only SD connected topics, but wide range of technological business, commercializing of intellectual projects, Concepts of technological parks, techno - policies, business-incubators. Commercialization of science. Investments market. Fundraising, looking up of grants, tenders, investors and investments, development of the business-plans and designs. Preparing of information materials on developments and realization of management designs.
Use of information technologies in the business. Practice of Internet access and computer using. Ecological Management (ISO 14000) and Marketing. Concepts of International Investments – Innovation Fair. On-line Technological Business Incubator. Modern Ecological Business and its connection with Sustainable Development concept. Introduction to Microeconomics. An introduction to the theory of prices and the allocation of resources. Topics include the pricing of goods and services, the determination of wages and returns to capital, market structure, and international trade. Introduction to the modern public choice paradigm. The use of assumptions and methods of economics, together with political factors influencing the outcomes of democratic processes. Some specific topics include information and uncertainty, individual and group demand for public activity, majority voting, political competition, and bureaucracy.
Environmental Economics. Environmental Management in Business and Industry. Introduction to the economic theory and policy of pollution control. Covers the broad spectrum of environmental issues and environmental management strategies. Lectures will survey risk management, energy usage, pollution control, resource recovery, public acceptance and regulatory compliance.
General Management. Theories of technical creation and decision making. development of technical systems. Psychological peculiarities of creative activities. Methods of technical creative activity in solving problems of ecologization. Social responsibility and ethics. Communications. Decision making. Strategic planning. Planning of strategy realization. Organizing interaction and ascribing powers. Motivation. Group dynamics. Administration: power and personal impact. Leadership: style, situation and efficiency. Controlling conflicts, changes and stresses. Self-development of manager. Environmental Management and Marketing. World activity in the area of environment protection. International environmental cooperation and control. Management of wastes. International economic activity in the field of ecology. Domestic and international laws for environmental protection. Using mechanisms of market economics to protect environment. Marketing and ecology. Organization and techniques of commercial operations. Notion, principles and principal elements of marketing, working with environmental goods, market study, system of product offering, peculiarities of advertising in ecology. Social basis of marketing. Environmental Business. Engineering Consulting Company. Environmental Laboratory.
Global Environmental Politics. Concerns political dimensions of global environmental problems: their causes, consequences and possible solutions, including the management of local and global commons. Examination of attempts to govern such resources as the ocean and atmosphere in light of transboundary issues. Potential for environmental global cooperation between individuals and countries. Course aims to gain a better understanding of the dimensions of environmental problems and the costs, benefits, and trade-offs involved in different types of "solutions". One component of the course is intended to provide some background on current environmental issues. Another introduces you to theoretical tools that will deepen your understanding of root causes of environmental problems and provide some analytical framework for solutions. A third component involves learning about context of environmental policy making.
Technology and Public Policy. Interdisciplinary examination of the role of science and technology in modern society. Inquiry into the possibilities and methods of public review of governmental policies having significant technological implications. Introduction to the concepts and techniques of technology assessment.
Basic principles, structures, and processes of domestic and international politics as related to the principles and mechanics of environmental policy formulation and implementation. Domestic policy structure and political forces are described and related to international policy and structure as applied to environmental issues.
Health Risk Assessment. Environmental Remediation. Risk communication includes developing practical skills in assessing health concerns and explaining potential health risks or risk management to the general public. Techniques are presented for effectively preparing community action plans, interfacing with the press and other media, preparing and conducting public meetings and speaking. Skill development is enhanced by several case studies involving role-playing and public speaking. The purpose of this course is to provide an understanding and analysis of communication processes used in defining environmental issues and shaping environmental policies. Topics include defining nature and environment; diverse audiences and environmental messages; developing strategies for risk communication; creating effective environmental campaigns. Case studies of successful and unsuccessful environmental communication will be examined.
Overview and analysis of how organizations create and maintain social reality through the rise of communication policies and practices. This course examines issues of management or how complex organizations develop strategies for anticipating and adapting to public policy changes through planning, compliance, and communication. Methodologies studied are applied to practical research assignments in organizational settings.
Besides it is necessary we are going to use possibilities of other Universities courses to realize SD concept as the base of modern specialists training. For sample Sociology course examines social, political and economic aspects of global and local environmental problems. Topics include: why some environmental risks have gained most attention, how support for environmental concerns can be measured, and responses by environmental social movements, and visions of sustainable societies in the first and third worlds.
Philosophy course will compare the predominant Western conception of humanity's place in nature with alternative conceptions, including those held by non-Western thinkers.
Ukrainian History course. Chernobyl Catastrophe. Energy and the Environment in the Ukraine. This course explores the causes and consequences of the nuclear explosion that occurred at the Chernobyl power plant, one of the greatest human and environmental disasters in human history. The course emphasizes an interdisciplinary approach to the problems presented by the Chernobyl explosion. In doing so, it attempts to place technical discussions of the origins and impact of the explosion in the social and historical context in which they occurred. Technical discussions of the reactor and problems of containment and remediation will be pitched at the level of the educated layman. Major topics include moral extentionism, as well as critiques of attempts to extend human-centered moral doctrines to nonhuman beings.
Environmental History. Consideration of the dynamic interaction of land and people in studying the changing environment of their country physical setting, diverse cultures that have both adapted to and shaped the landscape, and the evolution of issues such as coastal erosion, wildlife management and threats to cultural continuity. Course provides an understanding of causes and a useful context for evaluation of current environmental issues.
Computer Culture. Computer ecology. Computer design.
Methodological and theoretical problems of boosting environmental education and upbringing. Modern effective methods and ways of boosting. Systematic approach and environment conscious mind. Correlation of labor and environmental upbringing. Environmental aspects of teaching humanities and social sciences. Continuity and integrity as the major principles of ecological education. Optimizing habitat. Classification of negative factors influencing man's health. Radiation effects on human body and methods of protection against radiation. Ecological culture in household. Awareness and study of anatomy-physiological peculiarities of one's body. Simulating, consolidating and developing its protective power. Acquiring skills and habits of healthy life, learning first aid, Awareness of inseparable link between environment and human health. Ecology and outer space. "Living ethics" of Roerikh. Ecological education, training and upbringing in UNESCO plans and programs. Environment and smoking. Prevention of drug and alcohol addiction. Auto-training. Environment and infectious diseases. Prescriptions and recommendations of alternative medicine, phyto-therapy and homeopathy in prevention infectious diseases. Medicinal herbs. Preparation of vitamin herb mixtures and drinks. Environmentally clean products of plant and animal origin. Fundamentals of rational diet. Body hardening. Role of nature factors. Effects of light, air, water: sunbathing, showering, barefoot walking, sauna. Psycho-emotional state. Autogenic training.
Environmental Ecological Education. Life ecology. Environmental effects on human life and health. Way of life and the state of muscles, hypo-dynamics, physical load, massage. Cardio-vascular system, its condition and healthy life. The influence of nicotine, alcohol, harmful substances in water, air and food on human body. Pure air as a health-making factor. Environmentally clean foods and health. The influence of the ecology of habitat, water, food on health. Ecologically determined children's nervousness and its prevention. Hormone activity of developing organism. Endocrine diseases and their prevention. Ecologically pure food and hormone balance. Ecology of morals and health. Stimulation, consolidation and developing protective powers of body, acquiring skills and habits of healthy life. Biological rhythms. Rises and falls of physiological, psychic and emotional activity. Massaging biologically active zones for prevention of fatigue, lifting stress states, increasing workability. Influence of clean environment on psycho-emotional state. Ecology of visual, color and musical perceptions of man. Nature and noise. Noise prevention in everyday life and industry. Nature reserves and their role in health improving of Earth, strengthening human health.